The Litvaks: A Short History of the Jews in Lithuania

כריכה קדמית
Berghahn Books, 2000 - 283 עמודים
Discusses some aspects of antisemitism in Lithuania, especially in socioeconomic terms, in the Middle Ages and under the Russian tsars. The 20th-century interwar period saw the introduction of anti-Jewish laws that negatively impacted on Jewish political involvement, economic activity, and physical security, and the situation worsened with a right-wing coup, at which time Nazi influence grew among the German minority. The peak of antisemitism is treated in pt. 4 (pp. 187-247), "World War II, the Holocaust, and the Jewish Survivors". Although Soviet rule in 1940-41 ended many restrictions, it harmed Jews culturally and economically; many were arrested or exiled. The Nazi occupation which followed led to the destruction of Lithuanian Jewry. Even before the arrival of the German army, ca. 10,000 Jews were murdered by Lithuanians. German troops brought the Final Solution, in which Lithuanian collaboration was massive. Discusses ghettos, forced labor, and concentration camps, as well as Jewish partisan resistance. 96% of Lithuanian Jews were killed. Popular antisemitism was revived in postwar Lithuania. The issues of Lithuanian-Nazi collaboration and the Lithuanian association of Jews with communists to justify the massacre of Jews during World War II remained problems in the postwar and even post-communist periods.
 

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תוכן

Introduction
10
The History of Lithuania from the Late Thirteenth
19
Lnder Tsarist Rule r721915
26
World War II
32
The Postwar Years
38
The Jews in the PolishLithuanian Commonwealth 1569 1795
48
Religious and Cultural Life
58
lnder Tsarist Rule in the Russian Pale of Settlement 17951914
64
Religious Culture
92
National Movements and Political Activity
101
111 The Deportation of Lithuanian Jewry to the Russian Interior
107
Part IV
187
Lithuanian Jewish Refugees in the Soviet Lnion
200
Exiles and Prisoners in the Soviet r niun
209
From Individual Murders to Mass Execution
231
js Bibliography
265

From the Crimean War to World War 1 18561914
72
Economic Activity and the Standard of Living
83
Names of Jewish communities that were part of Lithuania in other periods
282
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