The Dark Matter Problem: A Historical Perspective
Most astronomers and physicists now believe that the matter content of the Universe is dominated by dark matter: hypothetical particles which interact with normal matter primarily through the force of gravity. Though invisible to current direct detection methods, dark matter can explain a variety of astronomical observations. This book describes how this theory has developed over the past 75 years, and why it is now a central feature of extragalactic astronomy and cosmology. Current attempts to directly detect dark matter locally are discussed, together with the implications for particle physics. The author comments on the sociology of these developments, demonstrating how and why scientists work and interact. Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND), the leading alternative to this theory, is also presented. This fascinating overview will interest cosmologists, astronomers and particle physicists. Mathematics is kept to a minimum, so the book can be understood by non-specialists.
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2 Early history of the dark matter hypothesis
the darkhalo solution
extended rotation curves of spiral galaxies
light traces mass
6 Cosmology and the birth of astroparticle physics
missing mass found
8 CDM confronts galaxy rotation curves
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acceleration appears astronomical baryonic matter clusters of galaxies cold dark matter collapse Coma cluster component constant context cosmic cosmological cosmological constant dark energy dark halo dark matter particles decoupling deﬁnite density ﬂuctuations detection discrepancy distance electrons emission emitting ﬁrst ﬁt ﬂat rotation curves ﬂuid galactic galaxy rotation curves gravitational ﬁeld gravitational lensing hot gas Hubble interact isothermal sphere Jeans length Kalnajs larger light luminosity mass distribution mass-to-light ratio maximum-disk measured Milgrom Milky modiﬁcation MOND motion neutral hydrogen neutrinos neutrons Newton’s Newtonian dynamics non-baryonic objects observed rotation curve optical Ostriker outer regions parameter Peebles photons physicists predicted radiation radio radius redshift rotation velocity scale Schwarzschild scientiﬁc shown in Fig signiﬁcant single-dish solar solid curve spheroidal spin spiral galaxies stars stellar structure formation supernovae supersymmetry surface brightness telescope temperature theory Tully–Fisher Universe virial theorem visible disk wavelength Westerbork WIMP X-ray Zwicky