The Book of Lord Shang: A Classic of the Chinese School of Law

כריכה קדמית
The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd., 2003 - 346 עמודים
The Book of Lord Shang was probably compiled sometime between 359 and 338 BCE. Along with the Han Fei-Tzu, it is one of the two principal sources of Legalism, a school of Chinese political thought. Legalism asserts that human behavior must be controlled through written law, rather than ritual, custom or ethics, because people are innately selfish and ignorant. The law is not effective when it is based on goodness or virtue; it is effective when it compels obedience. This is essential to preserve the stability of the State. Reprint of Volume XVII in Probsthain's Oriental Series. With a Chinese index and an index of names and references. "The Book of Lord Shang or Shang-tzu is said to consist of 29 paragraphs, of which the text for nos. 16, 21, 27, 28 and 29 being no longer extant. The translation of Prof. Duyvendak therefore covers only twenty-four paragraphs and is based on an edition published by Yang Wan-li in 1793, which was reprinted by the Chê-chiang-shu-chü in 1876 in the "Collection of Twenty-two Philosophers." Of all the editions published before or after that date, this is the best known. (...) The Chinese text of the Book, like many other ancient writings, is obscure in some parts and corrupt in others. (...) The reviewer is therefore forcibly struck by the faithfulness, definiteness and clearness of Dr. Duyvendak's translation." --13 Chinese Soc. & Pol. Sci. Rev. 459-460, 462 1929. J.J.L. Duyvendak [1889-1954] was an interpreter for the Dutch embassy in Peking from 1912-1918. In 1919 he became a lecturer in Chinese at the University of Leiden. He was the author of China's Discovery of Africa; Lectures Given at the University of London on January 22 and 23, 1947 (1949) and edited and translated several works, including The Diary of His Excellency Ching-shan; Being a Chinese Account of the Boxer Troubles by Shan Jing (1924). He established the Sinological Institute at the University of Leiden in 1930. It is now one of the leading libraries for Chinese Studies in the Western world.

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עמוד 115 - Among us, in our part of the country, those who are upright are different from this. The father conceals the misconduct of the son, and the son conceals the misconduct of the father. Uprightness is to be found in this.
עמוד 294 - Here are a small basket of rice and a platter of soup, and the case is one in which the getting them will preserve life, and the want of them will be death; - if they are offered with an insulting voice, even a tramper will not receive them, or if you first tread upon them, even a beggar will not stoop to take them.
עמוד 51 - Ch. xvi. sumers, and that if it were too low, it would hurt the farmers. If the consumers were hurt, the people would emigrate, and if the farmers were hurt, the state would be poor. The bad results of a high price and a low price are the same. Therefore, a good statesman would keep the people from injury and give more encouragement to the farmers.
עמוד 331 - ... question) fixed by the law. The people should then at once inform the government officials, formally, of the law officer's statement. Thus the government officials, knowing that such is the course of events , dare not treat the people contrary to the law, nor do the people dare infringe the law. In this way, government officials and the people of the empire, however virtuous or good , however...
עמוד 208 - ... men for every ten that it marches out. The fact that penalties are heavy makes rank the more honourable, and the fact that rewards are light makes punishments the more awe-inspiring. If rank is honoured, the ruler loves the people, and if punishments are so awe-inspiring, the people will die for their ruler. Therefore, in a prosperous country, the people profit by the application of penalties, and by the distribution of rewards, the ruler will gain...
עמוד 120 - Therefore is an intelligent ruler cautious with regard to laws and regulations; he does not hearken to words which are not in accordance with the law; he does not exalt actions which are not in accordance with the law; he does not perform deeds which are not in accordance with the law.
עמוד 106 - The former kings hated this confusion ; hence they established the rules of proper conduct (li) and justice (i) in order to set limits to this confusion, to educate and nourish men's desires, to give opportunity for this seeking for satisfaction, in order that desire should never be exhausted by things, nor should things be curbed by desire ; that these two should support each other and develop. This is whence the rules of proper conduct (li) arise.
עמוד 104 - LORD 8HANG they promoted what was profitable and removed what was harmful ; they regulated the people's idea of virtue and the people took them as their masters. . . . When superiors and inferiors had been established, the people formed an organization, and the state was founded.
עמוד 113 - If you govern by punishment the people will fear. Being fearful, they will not commit villainies ; there being no villainies, people will be happy in what they enjoy. If, however, you teach the people by righteousness, then they will be lax and if they are lax, there will be disorder ; if there is disorder, the people will suffer from what they dislike. What I call profit is the basis of righteousness, but what the world calls righteousness is the way to violence. Indeed, in making the...

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